As onions are sliced or eaten, cells are broken, allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulfoxides and generate sulfenic acids. A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, formed when onions are cut, is rapidly rearranged by a second enzyme, called the lachrymatory factor synthase or LFS, giving syn-propanethial-S-oxide, a volatile gas known as the onion lachrymatory factor or LF. The LF gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye, where it activates sensory neurons, creating a stinging sensation. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant Chemicals that exhibit such an effect on the eyes are known as lachrymatory agents.

Supplying ample water to the reaction while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Eye irritation can, therefore, be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling, or by not cutting off the root of the onion (or by doing it last), as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating, limiting the amount of gas generated.

Eye irritation can also be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes, or by wearing goggles or any eye protection that creates a seal around the eye. Contact lens wearers may also experience less immediate irritation as a result of the slight protection afforded by the lenses themselves.[

The amount of sulfenic acids and LF released and the irritation effect differs among Allium species. On January 31, 2008, the New Zealand Crop and Food institute created a strain of “no tears” onions by using gene-silencing biotechnology to prevent synthesis by the onions of the lachrymatory factor synthase enzyme.

Note.-  COPY AND FRAME THIS IN YOUR KITCHEN. ( E.Guxman F.D. ( Fooddoctorx)




DO YOU WANNA CRY WITHOUT ONIONS  ?……..Watch this  ( Sad) Story .




HAM SANDWICH ?……( Read the story )

Cass Elliot (September 19, 1941 – July 29, 1974), born Ellen Naomi Cohen and also known as Mama Cass, was an American singer and member of The Mamas & the Papas. After the group broke up, she released five solo albums. In 1998, Elliot, John Phillips, Denny Doherty, and Michelle Phillips were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for their work as The Mamas & the Papas.

Elliot was married twice, the first time in 1963 to James Hendricks, her groupmate in The Big Three and The Mugwumps. This was reportedly a platonic arrangement to assist him in avoiding being drafted into the army during the Vietnam War; the marriage reportedly was never consummated and was annulled in 1968. In 1971, Elliot married journalist Baron Donald von Wiedenman who was heir to a Bavarian barony. Their marriage ended in divorce after a few months.

Elliot gave birth to a daughter, Owen Vanessa Elliot, on April 26, 1967. She never publicly identified the father, but many years later, Michelle Phillips helped Owen locate her biological father Owen grew up to become a singer as well and toured with Beach Boy Al Jardine.

At the height of her solo career in 1974, Elliot performed two weeks of sold-out concerts at the London Palladium. She telephoned Michelle Phillips after the final concert on July 28, elated that she had received standing ovations each night. She then retired for the evening, and died in her sleep at age 32. Sources state her death was due to a heart attack. Elliot died in a London flat, No. 12 at 9 Curzon Place, Shepherd Market, Mayfair, which was on loan from singer/songwriter Harry Nilsson. Four years later, The Who’s drummer Keith Moon died in the same flat at the same age.

Elliot was entombed in Mount Sinai Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. After her death, Elliot’s younger sister, Leah Kunkel, received custody of Cass’ daughter Owen, then just seven years old. Kunkel is also a singer and charted in 1984 as a member of the Coyote Sisters on the single “Straight From The Heart (Into Your Life)”. Kunkel was interviewed by VH1 in 1997 and discussed her sister for the “Mamas & Papas” episode of the network’s documentary series Behind The Music.

An oft-repeated urban legend states that Elliot choked to death on a HAM SANDWICH. The story, which started following the discovery of her body, was based on speculation in the initial media coverage. Police had told reporters that a partially eaten sandwich found in her room might have been to blame, though an autopsy had yet to be conducted. Despite the post-mortem examination finding that Elliot had died of a heart attack and no food at all was found in her windpipe, the false story that she choked on a sandwich has persisted in the decades following her death. In fact Elliot had lost 80 pounds (36 kg) in the eight months before her death by fasting four days a week. Her fatal heart attack was most likely related to this extreme weightloss measure.




Olive oil is obtained by cold pressing of the olives, the olive fruit. The product from the first pressing is called extra virgin olive oil, while the remainder from various lower grades, is achieved by successive pressings, the use of heat in recent processes. It is not known with certainty who were the inventors of the extraction of oil from the olives, but it is known that the first crops developed in the area we now call the Middle East, and there is evidence of the existence of olive trees in 1400 for three years in Mycenae and Palestine. The Phoenicians traded throughout the Mediterranean, and later extended its production from the Betic (part of present-day Andalusia and Extremadura), where, probably, won its Arabic name, to reach the north of Spain. Subsequently, procedures were devised for obtaining oil from other grains, such as soy, rice, castor, sunflower, corn, etc..

However, olive oil, base of the Mediterranean diet, stands out above all others by its composition, which helps reduce cholesterol levels (LDL) or bad cholesterol and increases good cholesterol levels or high density (HDL). Olive oil also has natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E).

Both olive oil and comes from the Arabic az az zayt and Zaytuna, respectively. Zayt or zait is an ancient Semitic word in Hebrew and in the form zeit, means “olive tree”, the tree that produces olives, Olea europaea called in botany. The Mount of Olives, where Jesus withdrew to pray, called har-ha-zeit in Hebrew.

In Portuguese, the name is reserved for Azeite olive oil, while other fruits or grains are called oils, but in Castilian called ‘oil’ not only the plant but also to mineral oils derived from oil, which have little to do with olives.